Cozumel (Mayan: Island of the Swallows) (Kùutsmil in Modern Maya) is an island in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, opposite the Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatan Channel. It is one of the eight municipalities (municipios) of the state of Quintana Roo. Cozumel is a popular tourist destination renowned for its scuba diving and snorkeling. The main town on the island is San Miguel de Cozumel.
The island is about 48 km (30 miles) north-south and 16 km (10 miles) east-west, and is the largest Atlantic island of Mexico. (It is the third-largest island in Mexico, following Tiburón Island and Isla Ángel de la Guarda.) It is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the mainland, and some 60 km (36 miles) south of Cancún. The vast majority of the population of Cozumel lives in the town of San Miguel (pop. 86,415 in 2015), which is on the western shore. The rest of the island is low, flat, and densely vegetated. The island, including offshore islets, has a land area of 477.961 km2 (184.54 sq mi). The municipality, which includes two small areas on the mainland enclaved within the Municipality of Solidaridad with a land area of 10.423 km2 (4.024 sq mi), has a total land area of 488.384 km2 (188.566 sq mi). The two areas enclaved on the mainland are Calica, near Playa del Carmen and Xcaret, and the Xel-Há Water Park, near the Xelha archaeological ruins.
The Maya are believed to have first settled Cozumel by the early part of the 1st millennium AD, and older Preclassic Olmec artifacts have been found on the island as well. The island was sacred to Ix Chel, the Maya Moon Goddess, and the temples here were a place of pilgrimage, especially by women desiring fertility. There are a number of ruins on the island, most from the Post-Classic period. The largest Maya ruins on the island were bulldozed to make way for an airplane runway during World War II. The ruins of San Gervasio are located approximately at the center of the island and are the largest remaining ruins.
The first Spanish visitor was Juan de Grijalva in 1518 , and in the following year Hernán Cortés came with a fleet and destroyed many Maya temples. Some 40,000 Mayans lived on the island then, but the smallpox disease devastated them, and by 1570 only 30 were left alive. In the ensuing years Cozumel was nearly deserted, just used as a hideout by pirates from time to time. In 1848, the Caste War of Yucatán resulted in resettlement by refugees escaping the tumult. A plaque at the Museo Cozumel states that Abraham Lincoln as the American President came close to purchasing the island of Cozumel as a place to send the freed slaves. The continued war in the Yucatan caused him to change his mind.
Late 20th century
In 1959, Jacques Cousteau discovered the extent and beauty of Palancar, the coral reefs at the south of Cozumel and publicized it as one of the best places to go scuba diving in the world. Although the original airport was a World War II relic and was able to handle jet aircraft and international flights, a much larger airport was built in the late 1970s. This resulted in much greater tourism to Cozumel.
Scuba diving is still Cozumel's primary draw, mainly due to the healthy coral reef marine communities. These coral reefs are protected from the open ocean by the island's natural geography. In 1996, the government of Mexico also established the Cozumel Reefs National Marine Park, forbidding anyone from touching or removing any marine life within the park boundaries. Despite the importance of healthy reefs to Cozumel's tourist trade, a deepwater pier was built in the 1990s for cruise ships to dock, causing damage to the reefs, and it is now a regular stop on cruises in the Caribbean.
2005 Hurricane Season
Cozumel seen through the eye of Hurricane Wilma.
The island was struck directly by two Category 5 hurricanes during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. First to arrive was Hurricane Emily in July. Despite being a powerful storm, it was the slower moving Hurricane Wilma that caused the most destruction when it hit the island in October. The usually lush rainforest was sheared off. The tops of trees disappeared and no leaves were left on the highest five feet of almost every tree. A significant amount of vegetation was ruined when salt water washed over the island. The sewers of San Miguel were also heavily damaged.
Reconstruction was swift and concerted. Even before Wilma cleared the area, the supplies needed to restore the island were already being gathered on mainland Mexico. Within weeks, the island was receiving cruise ships again, and within months, almost all infrastructure was restored to pre-Wilma conditions or better. Two of Cozumel's three cruise ship piers have reopened: International Pier in May 2006, and Punta Langosta Pier in September 2006. The Puerta Maya Pier, which took more damage, opened in 2008.
Cozumel relies solely on tourism for income - online tourist guides generally state that unless you came to the island to scuba dive or charter fish, there is little to do as the ruins and sights are limited. There are over 100 restaurants on the island and many hotels, some of which run dive operations, have large swimming pools, private docks, multiple dining facilities, and offer complete wedding and honeymoon packages.
All food and manufactured supplies are shipped onto the island.
There are two universities on the island: Universidad de Quintana Roo and Partenon. In addition to teaching English as a degree, they offer five other career options including natural resources research, tourism and commercial systems.
Cozumel is part of the State of Quintana Roo (Q-Roo). The Municipality of Cozumel consists of the island of Cozumel (with its offshore islets) and small pieces of adjacent mainland enclaved within the Municipality of Solidaridad. They are Calica and the Xel-Há Water Park.
The "Presidente Municipal" Mayor of Cozumel is elected every 3 years by citizen elections.
Cozumel is a flat island based on limestone, resulting in a karst topography. The highest natural point on the island is less than 15 meters above sea level. The Cenotes are deep water filled sinkholes formed by water percolating through the soft limestone soil during thousands of years. Cenotes can be explored by snorkeling, swimming or diving, in which several marine species can be appreciated. Ancient inhabitants of the island also used the large holes in the rocks for shelter, particularly to escape the heat, by digging out small caves in the ground.